Existing approaches are not altogether useless; marketers simply don't know when and how to use them. Marketers typically listen to consumers to identify a need or want that can be fulfilled by the company -- to identify unserved, unmet or unarticulated needs. Survey research then asks consumers what they need or want and to what extent these needs or wants are satisfied. The problem with this approach is that it is largely useless to ask consumers what they want. They can not know what they have not experienced. More dangerous is the approach itself. The research ends up with a list of 15 or so attributes that are important to consumers. The research shows the company, product or brand performs well on some attributes and not so well on others. Clearly, so the theory goes, those attributes that are important to consumers but are not well satisfied by either the company or the industry are unmet needs or wants.
A classic trap
A survey in the MP3 category around 2002 might well have shown that existing solutions including the iPod did not satisfy the delicate tastes of the very sophisticated high-fidelity listener of classic music. This would have compelled product engineers to satisfy this unmet need to search for ways to improve the device. They would have focused on engineering around the major product attributes, designing a high-quality listening experience to beat competitors to the high-end market. In the name of satisfying consumer needs, marketing would have ended up launching models and possibly sub-brands that promised premium to super-premium and deluxe listening experiences.
|Erich Joachimstahler's 'Hidden in Plain Sight: How to Find and Execute Your Company's Next Big Growth Strategy' (Harvard Business School Press) is out now. Buy it at amazon.com..|
This is the classic product-attribute-fixation trap. Had Apple fallen into that trap, iTunes or iMusicStore and the 2,000 iPod accessories -- such as the iConnector for your driving experience or Bose stereo speakers for your office listening experience -- would never exist. There wouldn't be 100 million iPods sold and more then 1 billion iTunes downloads.
Think companies no longer fall into the product-attribute-fixation trap? How about the venerable Motorola, which launched the ultra-thin, ultra-cool Razr and quickly followed up with the Krzr, Rokr, Pebl and Slvr brands? Meanwhile, while the marketer was busy spending money to launch these brands, the Razr raced its competitors to the bottom of low margins in just three years -- the commodity hell of feature competition and rock-bottom prices.
Observing vs. understanding
A second large category of research approaches to understand consumers are the so-called ethnographic-research and the qualitative-consumer-insights approaches. Microsoft observes office workers by shadowing them, Marriott hires anthropologists to observe consumers during the check-in and check-out process at Courtyard by Marriott.
These are valuable studies and frequently mentioned sources of insights about consumers. But we also have to remember that observing is not equal to understanding.
The facts today are that ethnographic research is conducted in the name of creating deeper understanding about consumers, but we often observe our subjects with our own biases, our own products tucked under the arm. The result is merely a more nuanced articulation of a need for more service quality.
Between listening to consumers using survey-research methods and observing consumers using ethnographic-research approaches lies a third, totally innovative approach that focuses on understanding the ecosystem of consumer demand.
It involves four major steps:1. Map the landscape. Between the world of your products and services and the world of consumers' needs and wants resides what really matters to them: the serial realities of people's lives, the projects, tasks, jobs, concerns and activities that consumers live every day, the 1,440 minutes we all live everyday. Those matters are the starting point of our journey of discovery -- not consumer needs, not wants or the product-feature set.
2. Explore consumption motivations. The category leader in the male grooming business, the Axe brand is illustrative of what an understanding of the ecosystem of consumer demand can lead to. When studying the ecosystem of demand, the real motivations of young men emerge. All their activities, many of their daily goals, activities and priorities, are focused on the single-most-important occupation of young men: to get the girl. So Axe doesn't position itself as the better fragrance or body spray; instead, it helps young men get an edge in the mating game. Instead of looking back into R&D to see what new scents are in store or asking consumers to go through sniff tests, Unilever mapped those activities and goals to be successful in getting the girl. Today, Axe is one of the most successful launches in more than 60 countries in the world. In just four years, it has replaced the long-time category leader in the U.S.
3. Reframe the opportunity space. Understanding the ecosystem of consumer demand is an important first step, but there needs to be a process to systematically expand or reframe our understanding even beyond what we can learn from consumers. Reframing the opportunity space requires creativity and structured thinking to explore the ecosystem of consumer demand from different angles.
4. Quantify the sweet spot. One of the biggest issues of ethnographic research, however rich the consumer insights, is that it is still highly qualitative in nature. It requires a lot of conviction to follow a new insight and to invest against it. In our experience, the sequence of steps in understanding the ecosystem of consumer demand relieves this problem.
Understanding the ecosystem of demand will change the way you market to consumers and build your businesses. The objective will be to design and market the product, brand or service so that it perfectly fits into the changing ecosystem of everyday life, transforming how people live, work and play.
Erich Joachimstahler is the founder and CEO of Vivaldi Partners, a global marketing firm. He is also the author of 'Hidden in Plain Sight: How to Find and Execute Your Next Big Growth Strategy,' Harvard Business School Press, out this month.
Prior to joining Vivaldi Partners, Agathe Blanchon-Ersham was a consultant at Mitchell Madison Group/MarchFirst, a global management-consulting firm, where she developed growth strategies for clients in a variety of industries.