The rankings list only parent companies. Ad Age International merges ad spending figures of subsidiaries into those of the parent. For example, Mars Inc. includes Effem and Master Foods.
Joint ventures stand on their own: Cokoladovny (a food marketer in the Czech Republic and Slovakia) is a joint venture of Nestle and Danone.
Where measured figures are monitored at the brand level, Ad Age International consolidates these figures into parent companies. Sometimes the parent company changes internationally. For example, 7UP is owned by Cadbury Schweppes in the U.S., but marketed by PepsiCo virtually everywhere else.
Source data ranges from the top 10 brands in a country to rankings of 400 corporate marketers. Only in Israel were ad spending figures unobtainable.
In a few countries where ad spending is reported by rate card and discounting is known to be extremely deep, gross rates are adjusted by the editors to reflect more realistic spending.
To qualify as a Top 50 global marketer, 1995 ad spending had to be reported in at least three non-U.S. markets.
Each marketer's total non-U.S. ad spend is the sum of measured spending for products and services of all subsidiaries from all countries where information was available.
For some companies, prior year (1994) ad spending data was not available in all countries. To more accurately estimate growth in a marketers' ad budget, percent change figures are based solely on data for which both years' ad spending totals are known.
U.S. ad spending (shown only in the chart on Page I-15) includes both measured media from Competitive Media Reporting and unmeasured ad spending as estimated by Advertising Age in the 100 Leading National Advertisers report (AA, Sept. 30), unless marked with an asterisk which denotes measured media only.