Circulation revenue was calculated by multiplying paid subscribers by subscription price, and newsstand sales by frequency and the single-copy price. Sources for circulation data: Audit Bureau of Circulations, BPA International and directories on consumer, business and health publications from Standard Rate & Data Service. Though subscription and single-copy prices may change in the year, only end-of-year prices are applied to subscriber and newsstand counts. Association magazines count only the portion of membership dues dedicated to the publication. Data are confirmed by publishers and confined to North America.
Staff for this report: R. Craig Endicott, DataCenter editor; Kevin Brown, Ad Age Group data manager; Scott MacDonald and Mark Schumann, research coordinators; Julie A. Johnson, Jennie Sierra and Laura Smith, special assistants.