METHODOLOGY

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Advertising Age International's annual ranking of advertisers outside the U.S. includes spending figures from 52 countries. The data come from a variety of sources including research companies, marketing publications and ad agencies.

To qualify for the ranking, ad spending must be reported in at least two non-U.S. markets. This qualification, new this year, eliminates some advertisers previously on the list, such as Nippon Telephone & Telegraph Co. and the Australian Government.

Each company's total ad spending outside the U.S. is the sum of ad spending data for products and services for all their subsidiaries from all countries where it could be obtained. The length of the lists available varied from as many as 200 advertisers in a country to only the top 10.

Spending is reported by parent company. However, in some areas, including the Pan Arab region, China and Indonesia, the only figures available were reported by brand. The figures for brands were added to arrive at parent company totals.

Liquor and cigarette brands pose special difficulties because of licensing agreements with different companies in different countries. In general, the brand's primary owner was credited with ad spending.

Japan's figures are significantly lower than in previous years, because promotional spending was unavailable. Japan's figures previously included promotional spending.

In some countries, ad spending is reported according to rate cards. When deemed appropriate, gross rates are discounted by the editors to reflect more accurately the actual spending level. Figures from Italy were reduced by half; Mexican data by 75%; data from Portugal by 40%.

Sources are identified on Pages I-14 and I-16 beneath the individual country rankings. All figures are in U.S. dollars.

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