Oak Brook, Ill.
Kroc fundamentally altered America's -- and the world's -- eating habits. As he successfully advertised and championed quality/value for McDonald's burgers-fries-shakes, he also raised fast-food industry standards. A salesman of milk-shake mixers, Kroc was so impressed in 1954 by the original McDonald's in San Bernardino, Calif., he made a franchise deal. By 1961, when he bought out the McDonald brothers, he was operating hundreds of McD units. Kroc instituted food prep and service through teamwork, standardized menus and franchisee training schools. He also targeted the expanding U.S. suburban market, employed teens and seniors, offered popular premiums, founded Ronald McDonald House and remained committed to heavy advertising support.
27: Allen Rosenshine (1939- )
BBDO Worldwide, New York
A brilliant copywriter, Rosenshine began his BBDO career in 1965 and by 1986 rose to chairman of what was called BBDO International. Recognizing the importance of meeting the Saatchi brothers' global agency network challenge in the mid-'80s, Rosenshine conducted intensive, secrecy-cloaked merger talks that culminated in April 1986 with the so-called "Big Bang," a merger that created the Omnicom Group, the world's largest three-network conglomerate consisting of BBDO (No. 6) and a merged Needham Harper Worldwide (No. 16) and Doyle Dane Bernbach (No. 12), plus a Diversified Agency Services unit to hold smaller operations. Despite client defections, differing agency cultures and much skepticism, CEO Rosenshine led it to financial success.
28: Claude C. Hopkins (1866-1932)
Lord & Thomas, Chicago
Claude Hopkins believed advertising existed only to sell something. His copy, notably his Schlitz beer slogan, "The beer that made Milwaukee famous," led Lord & Thomas' Albert Lasker to hire him (for $185,000 a year) in 1907. Hopkins insisted copywriters acquire detailed knowledge of client products and produce brief, dry, reason-why copy. He also promoted couponing, premiums, free samples, mail order and copy testing. For Pepsodent toothpaste, he "discovered" plaque; he then invested in the company and made another fortune. His classic, "Scientific Advertising," was published in 1923, after he retired from L&T, where he had served as president and chairman.
29: Ted Turner (1938- )
Turner Broadcasting System, Atlanta
After rebuilding his late father's outdoor advertising business in Atlanta, Turner acquired a failing independent TV station in 1970, successfully upgraded its programming and bought Major League Baseball's Atlanta Braves franchise. Recognizing cable TV's potential, he ignored naysayers and rented satellite transmission time to transform WTBS into the nation's first cable superstation. WTBS aired baseball and commercials across the land. He next created the all-news, all-day Cable News Network and TNT cable network; bought Hanna-Barbera's cartoon studio and MGM's film library; and in 1995 merged his media company with Time Warner to create a $17 billion conglomerate.
30: Hal Riney (1932- )
Hal Riney & Partners, San Francisco
Riney's unique body of work celebrates, implicitly if not flat-out, the American spirit and voice -- often his own, deep honey-coated voice-over. For Saturn cars, Crocker Bank, Alamo car rentals, Henry Weinhard beers, Gallo (with front-porch stars Bartles & Jaymes) and "Morning in America" for Ronald Reagan's re-election campaign, Riney's words and pictures conveyed sincerity, warmth and credibility. He was recruited from Botsford Ketchum by David Ogilvy and opened O&M's San Francisco office in 1976. In 1986, he took over the office, renaming it Hal Riney & Partners, and went on to mastermind GM's Saturn introduction with dazzling success. Often imitated, never surpassed, Riney's work achieved larger-than-life levels of creative excellence.
31: Phil Dusenberry (1936- )
BBDO Worldwide, New York
Dusenberry joined BBDO as a copywriter in 1962 and developed into one of the world's most influential creative forces as he rose to vice chairman at BBDO Worldwide. His impact came chiefly from memorable General Electric and Pepsi-Cola campaigns. Employing entertainer Michael Jackson in a huge trend-setting celebrity endorser deal, he followed "Pepsi generation" with "The choice of a new generation" campaign. Dusenberry also played a major role with advertising's volunteer Tuesday Team, whose "Morning in America" commercials helped get Ronald Reagan re-elected in 1984. As a screenwriter, Dusenberry's credits include "The Natural," starring Robert Redford.
32: Ira C. "Ike" Herbert (1927-1995)
Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta
A brilliant and engaging McCann-Erickson account supervisor on the Coca-Cola account, Herbert was hired away by Coca-Cola in 1965. During his 27-year career there, he served as brand manager, marketing director, president of Coca-Cola Foods, president of North America soft-drinks operations and president of Coca-Cola USA. Herbert played key roles in the launching of "Things go better with Coke," the brand's first global campaign; the follow-up classic, "It's the real thing"; and the widely honored offshoot spot, "I'd like to teach the world to sing." Herbert, who retired in '91 as Coca-Cola's deputy to the president, started his career in '51 at Chicago's MacFarland Aveyard and was at Edward H. Weiss & Co. from 1956-63.
33: Bob Gage (1921- )
Doyle Dane Bernbach, New York
Bill Bernbach, accompanied by copywriter Phyllis Robinson and art director Bob Gage, left Grey Advertising in 1949 to launch Doyle Dane Bernbach. Robinson and Gage would validate Bernbach's new copy-art teamwork concept. Publicity-averse Gage, regarded by his peers as an "absolute genius," put his stamp on print and TV advertising, plus Hollywood film editing. His whimsical Ohrbach's ads "exploded" on page with his art-type-white space treatments. His warm TV storytelling for Cracker Jack (Jack Gilford), Alka-Seltzer ("Honeymooners") and Polaroid (James Garner and Mariette Hartley), plus his electrifying quick-cuts and tightly focused editing techniques for Jamaica Tourist Board, brought new visual power to commercials as well as films.
34: Conde Nast (1873-1942)
Conde Nast Publications, New York
Growing up poor in St. Louis, Nast joined Collier's Weekly in 1898 and there developed his idea that a market existed for magazines catering to the fashion tastes of the affluent, or affluent-wannabes. He put his ideas to the test in 1909 by purchasing Vogue, then a struggling New York society weekly. Editor Edna Woolman Chase and Nast turned it into an influential, stylized, photo-fashion monthly for women that attracted upscale advertisers. After buying Vanity Fair and House & Garden -- and creating Conde Nast Publications -- in 1922, Nast lost his fortune in the 1929 stock market crash but was able to create Glamour in 1939 to further extend his publishing vision. "We have set the standards of the time," Nast said.
35: John Smale (1927- )
Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati
As a P&G associate ad manager in 1954, the former Richardson-Vicks executive began informing the American Dental Association of Crest toothpaste's fluoride-based anti-cavity research. In 1960, after the ADA awarded the toothpaste its first seal of approval, Crest surged to category leadership behind a huge, "Look Ma, no cavities" ad effort. In 1981, as P&G president, Smale demonstrated his commitment to new-product development, not just line extensions, by putting 14 new products into test and investing $2 billion in acquisitions that turned P&G into the nation's largest personal care products marketer. Next, Smale turned his attention to General Motors Corp., where, as board chairman, he designed a major restructuring program.
36: Bruce Crawford (1929- )
BBDO Worldwide, New York
Crawford joined BBDO in 1963 from Chesebrough-Pond's and served as BBDO International president from 1975-83. Under his direction, the unit grew from offices in a half-dozen countries to cover 54 nations and 170 agencies for 45 multinational clients. He became known for his low-key management style. Crawford left in '85 to become the general manager of New York's Metropolitan Opera. In '86, his BBDO partner Allen Rosenshine pulled off the Omnicom Group merger with Doyle Dane Bernbach and Needham Harper Worldwide. Crawford returned to BBDO in '89 when Rosenshine relinquished the Omnicom chairmanship to him.
37: John E. Kennedy (1864-1928)
Lord & Thomas, Chicago
While early admen Charles Bates and John E. Powers were committed to reason-why advertising, Canadian-born Kennedy exploited this approach to its fullest. In 1904, Kennedy's definition of advertising: "Salesmanship in print," impressed Albert Lasker, as did Kennedy's graphically distinctive ads with no-nonsense, hard-hitting copy. Named L&T's chief copywriter, Kennedy set out to learn everything about his clients' businesses, develop selling points and test copy. Lasker published his ideas in "The Booklet of Advertising Tests," sent copies to business prospects and based L&T's creative work on his philosophy. But Kennedy worked too slowly for Lasker; he left in 1906 to be a free-lance writer.
38: John B. Watson (1878-1958)
J. Walter Thompson Co., New York
In the early 1920s, JWT leader Stanley Resor set out to endow JWT's creative work and all advertising with scientific underpinnings. Resor brought Watson, a pioneering academic in behavioral psychology, into the agency. Previously a JWT consultant, Watson was asked to develop creative principles that would motivate consumers to buy. After studying JWT's advertising and clients, Watson realized instinctive judgment generally was more applicable than academic theories. He became a VP-account exec; developed blindfold tests, employee intelligence and performance tests; and continued to promote JWT's effort to surround its work with scientific premises.
39: Steve Jobs (1955- )
Apple Computer, Cupertino, Calif.
In co-founding Apple Computer in 1976, an innovative, booming company that would make PCs accessible to all, the iconoclastic young Jobs understood marketing's role and, with Chiat/Day, created a seminal, non-nerdy "casual lifestyle" image campaign that brought a lasting, cool generational stance to Silicon Valley. Leaving in '85 to create new companies, including Pixar Animation Studios, Jobs returned to a failing Apple in 1996 and directed a turnaround marketing effort that led to the hot new iMac computer. He employed advertising heavily (again via Chiat/Day), to project Apple's spirit.
40: Phyllis K. Robinson (1921- )
Doyle Dane Bernbach, New York
A staffer at Doyle Dane Bernbach on its opening day in June 1949, Robinson was a Bill Bernbach protege while writing fashion promotion in '46 at Grey Advertising, where Bernbach was creative director. Along with another Bernbach acolyte, Grey art director Bob Gage, Robinson joined Bernbach at DDB. Given leeway to set her own rules, she supervised George Lois, Mary Wells, Julian Koenig and Paula Green. Her work for Ohrbach's, Levy's bread, Chemstrand and Polaroid won her a spot in the Copywriters Hall of Fame. Bernbach credited Robinson with helping to professionalize advertising and lauded her ability to differentiate between "creative work" and "creative acrobatics."
41: William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951)
Hearst Corp., New York
A reporter with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World, Hearst returned to his native San Francisco in 1887 to run his father's Examiner. With heavy promotion plus "mass appeal" editorial content, he built the first national newspaper chain; paid top salaries; introduced bold headlines, halftone newsprint photos and color comics; and invested heavily in new technology and promotion. His worldwide publishing empire eventually would include 32 major city papers; 13 magazines; King Features Syndicate; radio and TV stations; Metrotone News; and movie and book companies. At one time, he lobbied successfully for legislation that forced California publishers to prove challenged circulation figures in court.
42: Philip Geier (1935- )
Interpublic Group of Cos., New York
Following its dramatic ouster of Marion Harper Jr. in 1967 -- and after "retiree" Bob Healy's success as savior CEO -- Interpublic Group of Cos.' board chose Geier as the man to continue IPG's remarkable rebuilding program. A McCann-Erickson lifer who began his career fresh out of college in its Cleveland office in 1958, Geier would direct international operations until 1977, when he was elevated to Interpublic president. Geier's management skills and his sensible, timely acquisitions raised publicly held Interpublic to No. 1 among U.S.-based agency groups in two years. His effective, quiet stewardship has given Interpublic an envied reputation for reliability and growth all along Wall Street.
43: Jane Trahey (1923- )
Jane Trahey Associates, New York
Jane Trahey was an innovative fashion copywriter, pioneer agency owner, award-winning creative leader, mentor, NOW activist, author-playwright-screenwriter and the first adwoman to earn $1 million a year. The Chicago native served Neiman Marcus as ad-sales promotion director, created Kayser Corp.'s innovative house agency and opened her own Manhattan agency in 1958. Her major campaigns were for Blackglama mink, Bill Blass, Calvin Klein, Elizabeth Arden, Famolare footwear, Olivetti and Union Carbide's Dynel. Trahey innovated with retail ads' color and scented ink. The movie "The Trouble With Angels" was based on her novel.
44: John H. Johnson (1918- )
Johnson Publishing Co., Chicago
Seeking his fortune in Chicago in the 1930s, Johnson was a writer and editor with struggling publications when he saw a need for publications that would project positive images for African-Americans and help them fulfill their potential. He founded Negro Digest on a shoestring in 1942, followed by Life-like Ebony in January 1945 and pocket-size Jet in '51. Johnson went on to acquire radio stations, a mail-order cosmetics business and an insurance company in building a business and media empire that for more than 50 years has provided advertisers with special marketing options. His company, he wrote, added "a permanent dash of blackness to the American media rainbow."
45: George Gallup (1901-1984)
Gallup & Robinson, Princeton, N.J.
On leaving Young & Rubicam in 1947, Gallup continued his pioneering work in public opinion polling with Claude Robinson and established his Gallup Poll and "impact" evaluations as national influences. Gallup started in 1922 as an interviewer for D'Arcy Advertising, St. Louis, and later proposed research approaches in his University of Iowa Ph.D. thesis. At Northwestern University in 1932, his male-female copy appeal ratings (economy, efficiency, sex, vanity, quality) caught Ray Rubicam's attention and Gallup then joined Y&R. The copy research department he created and ran for 16 years also trained research leaders. Gallup believed consumer attitude research had to precede creative work.
46: Raymond Rubicam (1892-1978)
Young & Rubicam, New York
An N.W. Ayer & Son copywriter in Philadelphia, Rubicam demonstrated leadership, teaching and supervisory gifts. His Squibb, Rolls-Royce and Steinway work fueled Ayer's success. In 1923, denied a partnership, the high school dropout and his college-educated colleague, John Orr Young, opened Young & Rubicam. Y&R embodied a "creative revolution" by focusing on creative excellence. With radio's arrival, Y&R produced popular shows with Jack Benny and Arthur Godfrey. Rubicam resigned George Washington Hill's $3 million Pall Mall cigarettes account rather than replace a creative team. He instituted Y&R research, a trust fund, profit-sharing and bonuses, and was recognized as "advertising's statesman."
47: Keith Reinhard (1935- )
DDB Needham Worldwide, New York
Before McDonald's marketing chief Paul Schrage visited Needham, Harper & Steers in 1970 seeking a new agency, Keith Reinhard had done his homework: studying and sampling fast-foods and interviewing fast-feeders' customers, he concluded it was the emotional rewards of McD's restaurant service that were unique. Schrage bought the concept and, driven by Reinhard's empathic anthem, "You Deserve a Break Today," McDonald's soared. As did Needham and Reinhard's career. He would later lose, and years later regain as head of DDB Needham Worldwide, McD's, and also help create Omnicom Group. Reinhard's legacy: Agencies can't work too hard at understanding their clients' businesses.
48: Carl Ally (1924-1999) and Amil Gargano (1933- )
Ally & Gargano, New York
Copywriter Ally left fabled Papert, Koenig, Lois in 1962 to open his own agency; landed the Pan Am, Volvo and Hertz accounts; and brought in art director Amil Gargano and copywriter Jim Durfee, whom he worked with at Campbell-Ewald. As Ally & Gargano, they would light up advertising's newly brightened skies by naming competitors in ads and making forceful claims. For Volvo, it was about safety. For Hertz? Was Avis No. 2 in car rentals? A&G's response: "For years Avis has been telling you Hertz is No. 1. Now we're going to tell you why." The rest is history -- in now-fabled Ally & Gargano style.
49: Charlotte Beers (1935- )
J. Walter Thompson Co. New York
A brilliant strategic thinker, Beers became the world's highest-ranked woman in advertising. The Texas native joined J. Walter Thompson Co.'s client services echelon in 1969 following a noteworthy performance as group product manager for Uncle Ben's. JWT in 1973 named her a senior VP, the first female to achieve that rank at the agency. In 1979, Beers became the ailing Tatham-Laird & Kudner's chief operating officer, then its CEO. She tripled billings to $325 million and merged with Europe's RSCG to create what is now Euro RSCG Tatham. Her performance led WPP Group to hire her away in April 1992, naming her chairman-CEO Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide and, in 1999, chairman of JWT. She recently