The Advertising Council, New York
Leaving a promising career as a Young & Rubicam creative in 1943 to serve as executive director of the nation's new War Advertising Council in Washington, Repplier directed 150 war-related public service campaigns. This work led him to a peacetime Advertising Council and he served as its president until he retired in 1966. Guided by the credo "Always put the country's interests first," Repplier took the council into areas related to social change, free trade and economics.
77: Roone Arledge (1931- )
ABC, New York
Named ABC News president in 1977, Arledge had already transformed televised sports, sports marketing and its economics, plus the Olympic Games, TV entertainment and leisure time habits. Pre-Arledge, TV sports were predictably routine. As ABC Sports' boss in 1961, Arledge created "Wide World of Sports," acquired the Olympic Games, NBA games and thoroughbred racing's Triple Crown and in 1970 created "Monday Night Football." Its dazzling format brought modern marketing -- and big bucks -- into sports. At ABC News, Arledge created such news formats as "20/20," "This Week With David Brinkley," "Nightline" and "Prime Time Live."
78: Thomas J. Burrell (1939- )
Burrell Communications Group, Chicago
Determined to become a copywriter 40 years ago, when African-Americans were scarce at agencies, Burrell started in a Chicago agency's mailroom and was promoted to copywriter in 1961. During the '60s, the race issue gained significant traction on Madison Avenue and Burrell became one of the blacks -- John Small, Frank Mingo, David Sullivan and Caroline Jones among them -- who ventured into the agency field. By 1980, Burrell had become the largest African-American agency. Stressing "variables" inherent in African-Americans' experiences rather than "integrated" TV spots, Burrell added such clients as Procter & Gamble Co., Coca-Cola Co., McDonald's Corp. and Sears, Roebuck & Co., and surpassed $168 million in billings in 1998.
79: G.D. Crain Jr. (1885-1973)
Crain Communications Inc., Chicago
Advertising lacked a reliable weekly "record of events in the world of advertising" until January 1930, when G.D. Crain Jr., Chicago-based publisher of business publications, introduced Advertising Age. Aided by Sid Bernstein, Crain persevered through the Depression, championing objectivity, accuracy and fairness. Ad Age gained acceptance as the industry's central news and information source. Crain worked with industry organizations to foster advertising reforms and after his death in 1973, his wife, Gertrude, and sons Rance and Keith continued on the growth path he had cleared. Both G.D. and Gertrude Crain, who died in 1996 at 85, are members of the Advertising Hall of Fame.
80: Emerson Foote (1906-1992)
Foote, Cone & Belding, New York
Emerson Foote, who publicly attacked tobacco advertising while his agency was handling $20 million in cigarette billings, was a Foote, Cone & Belding co-founder. Frederic Wakeman's celebrated Madison Avenue novel, "The Hucksters," reflected Foote's style, and he was portrayed in the '47 film version by Adolphe Menjou. With his unpredictable client, George Washington Hill of American Tobacco Co., Foote produced numerous classic radio shows. A manic depressive, Foote served with the Menninger Foundation and American Cancer Society and returned to agency work as McCann-Erickson chairman-president. Clashing with McCann's tobacco interests, he left to become an anti-tobacco spokesman.
81: Bill Backer (1926- )
McCann-Erickson Worldwide, New York
During his 25-year McCann-Erickson career, the Charleston, S.C., native created some of the most successful ad campaigns in history. Backer's musical training figured in Campbell Soup's "Bring on the Campbell's, Soup is Good Food;" Coca-Cola's 1971 "Hilltop" anthem, "I'd Like to Buy the World a Coke" and Coke's "It's the Real Thing" jingle; and Miller Lite's "Taste's great/less filling" celebrity "feud" series that ran for years and put Lite atop a new beer category. In 1979, Backer left McCann as vice chairman-creative director and, with Carl Spielvogel, Interpublic vice chairman, opened Backer & Spielvogel. The agency was acquired by Saatchi & Saatchi in 1985 for $100 million.
82: Joe Pytka (1938- )
Pytka Productions, Venice, Calif.
Out of Pittsburgh with a blue-collar background, Pytka mastered cinema's documentary style before taking on commercial work. Applying his documentary techniques to the :30 and :60 TV discipline, Pytka's award-winning spots include TV treasures for Nike, Hallmark, Infiniti, Apple, AT&T, Pepsi-Cola, Bartles & Jaymes, Polaroid, HBO (an Emmy winner), ESPN and Snickers, plus the movie "Space Jam" and the Beatles' "Free as a Bird" video. Pytka's uses of lighting, music, warm humor and emotional relationships won worldwide acclaim and established him as the most consistent master of the best in American TV commercial work.
83: Fairfax Cone (1903-1977)
Foote, Cone & Belding, Chicago
An intellectual man of taste, Cone applied his study of literature, history, sports, film, art, archaeology and politics to advertising. He joined Lord & Thomas, San Francisco, as a copywriter in 1929 and became exec VP of L&T's successor agency, FCB, in 1942. Based in Chicago, he led FCB to $22 million in billings in its first year with landmark campaigns for Lucky Strike, Hallmark, Toni and Dial. He distilled information to its essence, then executed campaigns with balance, simplicity, unity and clarity. Impatient with noisy, intrusive, deceptive TV commercials, Cone became an early advocate of a TV "magazine concept," whereby networks, not agencies, produced commercial programming.
84: Daniel Starch (1883-1979)
Daniel Starch & Staff, New York
Starch ranged into the burgeoning ad field with his landmark "Advertising: Its Principles, Practices & Techniques" in 1906. He pioneered measuring actual ad readership by using current ads in interviews and analyzing copy appeals as related to purchasing decisions, media usage and budgets. Starch introduced economic, sociological and demographic data to define the market environment. He founded Daniel Starch & Staff in 1923 and served as the first head of the American Association of Advertising Agencies' research department.
85: John E. Powers (1837-1919)
independent ad writer, New York
Known as the father of modern creative advertising, Powers proclaimed, "Fine writing is offensive." A former publisher of The Nation, Powers ranked No. 1 among independent copywriters at the turn of the century, both in fees and ability. "Powers style" meant simple, short, lively, cogent reason-why copy that was, significantly, truthful. Opinionated and stubborn, Powers worked only for those he considered trustworthy. His Wanamaker ad, "We have a lot of rotten gossamers and things we want to get rid of," sold out the lot in hours. He was called "advertising's most influential copywriter" and his work still serves as a model for national campaigns.
86: Victor O. Schwab (1898-1980)
Schwab & Beatty, New York
Schwab, shorthand secretary for Ruthrauff & Ryan's Maxwell Sackheim in 1917, so improved Sackheim's copy that he was promoted to copywriter and went on to be hailed "the greatest mail-order copywriter of all time." A copy research pioneer, Schwab would use his coded coupon ads to test headlines, copy appeals, length, layouts, action closings and split runs of ads. He created Sunday comics ads for Dale Carnegie, body-builder Charles Atlas and Sherwin Cody's English Classics Course. In 1926, Schwab and Robert Beatty bought out Sackheim & Scherman and went on to build the giant Book-of-the-Month Club.
87: Michael Ovitz (1946- )
Creative Artists Agency, Hollywood, Calif.
One of the most powerful dealmakers in Hollywood with his innovative talent "packaging" company, Ovitz personally changed film industry dynamics in 1990 by brokering huge studio mergers for Japan's Matsushita and Sony. Then, in September 1991, he rocked the advertising world by signing Coca-Cola, ostensibly for marketing and media aid. That partnership set off bicoastal shockwaves and embarrassed longtime Coca-Cola agency McCann-Erickson, especially after the soft-drink giant began airing CAA's commercials featuring high-tech, animated polar bears and a catchy "Always" jingle. Such a la carte options still affect agency-client relationships.
88: Cyrus H.K. Curtis (1850-1933)
Curtis Publishing Co., Philadelphia
Curtis saw advertising as an investment not an expense, and spent lavishly to build circulation and upgrade editorial content as he founded the modern magazine industry. His 1910 Advertising Code established standards that presaged the "truth in advertising" movement. He refused to pay agency commissions to advertisers that bought space direct. A former newspaper ad salesman, Curtis launched a weekly, The Tribune & Farmer, in 1879. Wife Louisa Knapp's popular women's section led to his 1883 spinoff, Ladies' Home Journal, which featured noted artists and writers and passed 1 million in circulation in 1900. Curtis bought a failing Saturday Evening Post in 1896; by 1907, its ad revenue passed $1 million.
89: Howard H. Bell (1926- )
American Advertising Federation, Washington
Director of the National Association of Broadcasters code authority in the 1950s, Bell played a key role in drafting the Television Code and creating the Television Bureau of Advertising. From 1968 to 1991, as president of the American Advertising Federation, he tripled its membership. His TV code enforcement work led Bell to play a leading role in the creation of the advertising industry's landmark self-regulatory National Advertising Review Board and its investigative arm, the National Advertising Division, volunteer policing agencies that have supported truth-and-accuracy standards for more than 25 years and averted government intrusions. Bell also was active in numerous advertising-related public service and educational activities.
90: Richard Lord (1926- )
Lord, Geller, Federico, Einstein, New York
A highly respected, award-winning copywriter and a founder of Lord, Geller, Federico, Einstein in 1967, Dick Lord dramatically demonstrated what agency independence was worth. With the IBM Corp. account in hand, he and his partners sold their agency to J. Walter Thompson Co. only to have Martin Sorrell's WPP Group acquire JWT in 1987. Autonomous Lord Geller became part of the deal. WPP then trimmed Lord Geller's bonus and profit-sharing plans, added paperwork and challenged its autonomy. Lord and key executives secretly created another outside agency and, in March 1988, walked out to join it, free of WPP. Reacting to this rebellion against British rule, WPP sued Lord's It cost them an estimated $7 million to regain their agency's "freedom."
91: Michael Eisner (1942- )
Walt Disney Co., Burbank, Calif.
Taking over in 1984 as chairman-CEO of Walt Disney Productions, Eisner, a former ABC programming chief and Paramount Pictures executive, revitalized and expanded to mega-status Disney's motion picture production, theme park and merchandising activities. He renewed and expanded Disney product merchandising; spread Disney's family amusement park reach to Europe, Japan and South America; moved Disney onto Broadway and into cable, vacation-business travel-destination packaging, arcades and Internet marketing; and engineered the ABC-Disney merger. Committed to promotion, marketing and advertising, Eisner led Disney to new heights as a major cultural force and multimedia powerhouse.
92: Al Achenbaum (1925- )
Canter Achenbaum Associates, New York
When client-agency relationships, ideally viewed as "marketing partnerships," underwent tectonic changes during the fourth quarter of the 20th century, Achenbaum was one of the reasons. A market researcher at McCann-Erickson, Grey Advertising and J. Walter Thompson Co. during his 25-year agency career, Achenbaum added expertise in copy research and economics and set up his consultancy in 1971 with Don Canter. Their evaluations of agencies for national advertisers and their account reviews changed the agency business and angered traditionalists. Ultimately, Achenbaum's approach -- profitable accounts without arbitrary 15% commissions -- prevailed.
93: Steve Frankfurt (1931- )
Frankfurt Balkind Partners, New York
In the 1960s, the talented art director joined Young & Rubicam as creative director -- the youngest so anointed in the business at the time. His tenure marked a period when the agency was just beginning to put a stamp on the look and feel of TV commercials with memorable, appealing campaigns for Eastern Airlines, Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers. His work helped disprove the notion that a big agency couldn't be a major creative player. Later in his career, Frankfurt moved from Madison Avenue to Hollywood, where he helped revolutionize the marketing and promotion of feature films, including a breakthrough campaign for "Rosemary's Baby."
94: Lester Wunderman (1920- )
Wunderman Worldwide, New York
A major direct-marketing force during the last half of the century, Wunderman was a direct link to the work of direct marketing pioneers Victor Schwab, Harry Scherman and Maxwell Sackheim. Hired as a copywriter by Sackheim at Maxwell Sackheim & Co. in 1947, Wunderman blossomed as a strategist. Recognizing that many "mail order" accounts were ripe for growth through broader marketing efforts, he introduced his "direct marketing" concept. He established Wunderman, Ricotta & Kline in 1958 (acquired by Young & Rubicam in '73) and, with his vast multimedia agency, often co-branded, direct-selling "breakthrough" campaigns, built Columbia Record Club and American Express' travel and entertainment credit card businesses.
95: Peggy Charren (1928- )
Action for Children's Television, Boston
In the 1960s, Charren's anger over child-targeted commercials and insensitive, over-commercialized TV shows that exploited youngsters led her to create Action for Children's Television. Using her ACT letterhead, she embarked on an unrelenting lobbying campaign to reform children's TV. By 1971, Charren's work had sensitized advertising to excessive TV violence as well as inappropriate cereal, toy and fast-food spots; these issues turned up on legislative and educational agendas. The 1990 passage of the Children's Television Act, Charren's triumph, set new standards and altered advertising's access to child-oriented programming, merchandising tie-ins and copy appeals.
96: Frank Hummert (1879-1966)
After creating radio campaigns at Lord & Thomas, Hummert joined Blackett & Sample in 1927 and went on to dominate the new medium. A man of mystery who avoided personal publicity and co-workers, Hummert and his future wife, Anne Ashenhurst, created, wrote and produced more than a dozen 15-minute daily radio soap operas, including, "Just Plain Bill" (Kolynos), "Betty & Bob" (Gold Medal Flour), "Ma Perkins" (Oxydol), "Jack Armstrong, All American Boy" (Wheaties), plus "Our Gal Sunday" and "Stella Dallas." With advertisers lining up to become clients, Hummert's radio royalties helped make him advertising's highest-paid executive in 1937.
97: Sam Vitt (1926- )
Vitt Media International, New York
The first wave of independent media buyers in the 1960s included fast-buck promoters with dubious barter deals as new creative boutiques sought media-buying expertise. Vitt, a full-service agency pro who headed Ted Bates' media department, saw a need for bona fide expertise and left Bates in 1964 to set up his independent media buying service. His Vitt Media brought wider acceptance to the new field as it handled, a la carte, the planning, buying and programming duties for the new creative shops as well as large- and medium-size shops. This "outside media department" approach altered traditional full-service agency structures and agency-client relationships.
98: Cliff Freeman (1941- )
Cliff Freeman & Partners, New York
For more than 25 years, Freeman's outside-the-box creative vision has shown how sprightly advertising can spawn market share spikes by building recognition and brand awareness and also attract general media coverage that transforms the work into popular icons. Freeman entered advertising in Atlanta; joined Dancer-Fitzgerald-Sample, New York, in 1970; and gained fame with the still-popular Mounds/Almond Joy candy bars ("Sometimes you feel like a nut . . . sometimes you don't") and Wendy's "Where's the beef?" campaigns. His own agency, opened in 1987, brought forth Little Caesars' "Pizza! Pizza!" Freeman's distinctive work has brought him numerous major awards along with "most remembered" and "most popular" honors.
99: Vance Packard (1914-1996)
"The Hidden Persuaders"
A national best-seller in 1957, Packard's "The Hidden Persuaders" capitalized on a public perception that "Madison Avenue" was ready, willing and able to persuade defenseless consumers to buy unneeded goods and services. The public bought the book and its premise. Packard explained that ad agencies used psychiatry, motivational research and related social sciences to create subliminal selling patterns. Ironically, his work contained enough distortions to diminish its value where it might have counted most -- among ad makers.
100: Stephen M. Case (1958- )
America Online, Dulles, Va.
His training was in marketing, but Case was fascinated with computers. Starting out as a low-level marketing assistant at P&G and Pepsi, Case moved to a small start-up offering dial-up services for Commodore computers. In 1985, after cutting deals to develop online services for Apple, Case started what would become in 1991 America Online. He envisioned a medium as omnipresent as TV -- if nothing else, his AOL diskettes would be. About 250 million diskettes and CD-ROMs were mailed to homes and distributed on planes and during ball games. Thirteen million users later, AOL's stock market valuation tops $100 billion and