Chairman-CEO, Procter & Gamble Co.
Marketing organization: Global managers with P&L responsibility manage brands and product mixes. Market-development-organization managers handle sales.
When it happened: 1999
Why it happened: Regional bosses slowed global rollouts, let smaller brands and businesses decline.
How it worked: Hard at first. Just ask Durk Jager. But system now gets plaudits from inside and outside company.
Nuances: MDOs have more power outside U.S., P&G managers say. But North American MDO is flexing its muscle with rollout of new communications-planning system.
Marketing organization: Global category presidents set broad strategy. Regional presidents with P&L responsibility handle sales, media and trade marketing.
When it happens: April 2005
Why it happened: Old patchwork of operating companies combined with partial global brand management overlay was underdelivering on top line and overlooking regional brands.
How it works: Details, key executive assignments still to be determined.
Nuances: Setting priorities and settling turf wars between categories and regions comes down to council of Mr. Cescau, two category presidents and three regional presidents.