Gallup & Robinson, Princeton, NJ
On leaving Young & Rubicam in 1947, Gallup continued his pioneering work in public opinion polling with Claude Robinson and established his Gallup Poll and "impact" evaluations as national influences. Gallup started in 1922 as an interviewer for D'Arcy Advertising, St. Louis, and later proposed research approaches in his University of Iowa Ph.D. thesis. At Northwestern University in 1932, his male-female copy appeal ratings (economy, efficiency, sex, vanity, quality) caught Ray Rubicam's attention and Gallup then joined Y&R. The copy research department he created and ran for 16 years also trained research leaders. Gallup believed consumer attitude research had to precede creative work.