With a pen stroke, Gerry Levin of Time Warner and Steve Case of AOL created the fourth-largest company in the world in terms of market capitalization. The deal came on the heels of a three-year period that saw online advertising ring up triple-digit percentage increases each year.
Like most analysts, I knew the rocket-booster pace of the previous years could not possibly last. "The year-to-year increases seen in 1997 and 1998 are not sustainable," I wrote. But-like most analysts-I didn't foresee the powerful downturn and retrenchment of 2001 and 2002. Nor did I anticipate the economic slowdown.
Now that the smoke has cleared from the boom-and-bust cycle, it's interesting to see what we got right and wrong, what has changed and what hasn't.
•Curiously strong ad growth
In 2000, I expected online advertising spending growth to cool as the medium gained size and maturity. Instead, the market went through a painful contraction in 2001 and 2002, so our projections for market size turned out to be far too optimistic.
In 2000, eMarketer projected that growth would scale back to 30% in 2003 and to 20% in 2004. Our latest measures, which are benchmarked against Interactive Advertising Bureau-PricewaterhouseCoopers data, show that online ad spending grew 20.9% in 2003 and 32.5% in 2004.
The downturn in 2001 and 2002 was so pronounced and prolonged that when the online ad market did turn the corner, it accelerated rapidly, making up for time lost to the bust.
In essence, the downturn warped the normal maturation process of a new market. Growth was put on hold during economic and geopolitical struggles. That created a pent-up demand, which, like a geyser, "blew" in 2003 and 2004. And it shows no signs of letting up in 2005, either-eMarketer is projecting spending growth will be even faster this year than last, reaching nearly 34%.
EMarketer expects 2005 to be the high-water mark for growth rates, with annual increases slimming to a sustainable but still healthy 10% by 2009, when we expect online ad spending to reach $22.9 billion.
•Search marketing explodes
What's most striking about our (and everyone else's) ad spending outlook in 2000 is the low profile of search marketing. In the space of five years, this category has erupted into the largest single online ad spending vehicle.
Its growth arc raises questions about the future. Is some barely tapped category poised to explode?
Two trends are worth watching.
One is behavioral targeting. The potential is enormous, the obstacles many. Will users grow more comfortable with sharing personal information on the assumption that the resulting messages they receive will be more relevant and less intrusive? Or will they continue to use new technologies to erect barriers to marketers?
The other trend is fragmentation. Will audiences continue to splinter into even narrower groups? Will the "disaggregated" content of countless sites around the globe be corralled into a powerful marketing vehicle?
•The speed question
In 2000, eMarketer predicted that by 2003, some 39.7% of Internet users would access the Net via broadband. The actual figure came in at 40% for 2003. Not a bad call.
However, some of our underlying assumptions were off. At that point, eMarketer was forecasting rapid growth of fiber access. Fiber remains a fringe technology, at least in the U.S. We also expected DSL to overtake cable as the dominant access platform in 2003. Deployment and service issues have slowed its uptake in the U.S., while it dominates in every other major broadband market around the globe.
E-mail has become so pervasive that we no longer estimate the number of users. But in 2000, we estimated that the average user received a whopping 15.2 e-mail messages per day.
Sounds like the good old days.
Geoff Ramsey is CEO of eMarketer. He can be reached at [email protected]