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The 100 Leading National Advertisers are selected from the 200 largest advertisers by measured U.S. media spending in calendar 1994. Those spending at least $38.7 million make up the 200, a group pared to 100 after unmeasured, below-the-line expenditures are added.

Media & monitoring services

Media advertising refers to ad spending in 11 national consumer media tracked by Competitive Media Reporting, a unit of VNU. Table rankings of top spenders in each of the 11 are found throughout this report.

Media breakouts labeled "U.S. AD SPENDING" at the beginning of each company profile (beginning on Page 40) are from CMR.

Measured media

Newspaper: CMR's LNA measures ad space in 129 newspapers in 50 of the nation's top markets. National newspaper spending refers to The Wall Street Journal and USA Today.

Magazines and Sunday magazines: Publishers Information Bureau measures paid advertising in 210 consumer magazines and four Sunday magazines.

Outdoor: Outdoor data include revenues in more than 200 plant-operator markets.

Network TV: CMR network TV totals are from CMR's MediaWatch, which counts every broadcast minute on ABC, CBS, NBC and Fox TV networks.

Spot TV: MediaWatch daily monitors spot TV on major stations in the top 75 markets.

Syndicated TV: CMR's syndicated TV tallies are based on program rates supplied by advertisers and satellite-distributed syndication provided by agencies.

Cable TV networks: MediaWatch monitors 17 cable networks: A&E, BET, CNN, CNBC, Comedy Central, Discovery, ESPN, Family Channel, Headline News, Lifetime, MTV, TNN, Nickelodeon, TBS, TNT, USA and VH1.

Network radio: MediaWatch monitors 13 radio networks broadcast by four companies.

Spot radio: National Spot Radio gathers data from 3,500 stations in over 200 markets. Dollar figures are based on reporting from reps of national stations.

Yellow Pages: Top 25 Yellow Pages advertisers came from Yellow Pages Publishers Association.

Media adjustments

Because CMR added more monitoring time and new markets to its media coverage in '94, AA adjusted '93 totals for four mediums (noted by asterisk) in the Top 100 media chart (Page 62) most affected by CMR's enhanced coverage. Adjustments show actual growth trends in those media, but were not made on a per company basis.

Unmeasured spending

Unmeasured figures are Ad Age estimates and include direct mail, promotion, co-op, couponing, catalogs, business and farm publications and special events, to name a few. Corporate annual reports, 10-K forms and company sources help compute this number. Unmeasured includes only U.S. spending.

Brand spending

Media spending by top brands presented in tabular form at the top of each company profile is CMR data. Brands must have spending greater than $5 million in calendar '94 to be listed. AA also moved measured and unmeasured spending for brands and/or companies into Top 100 advertisers if acquisitions occurred by midyear '95.

Corporate sales and earnings

Financial returns of the Top 100 are for the latest available fiscal year. Returns from privately held companies were estimated when possible.

Market share

In the category stories preceding the company profiles, tables ranking brands by share of market list sources in footnotes. Data from Information Resources Inc. are from drugstores, mass merchandisers and supermarkets with annual sales greater than $2 million. Data in IRI-supplied categories include retail dollars for total market and for the top 10 brands, the latter pulled at the brand-extension level.

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